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GLOBAL ADVANCED RESEARCH JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY (GARJM) ISSN: 2315-5116

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           Vol. 4(3) March 2015

                                   

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Ahmed  OB

Mashat BH


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Global Advanced Research Journal of Microbiology (GARJM) ISSN: 2315-5116

March, 2015. Vol. 4(3), pp 027-030

Copyright © 2015 Global Advanced Research Journals

 

 

Full Length Research Paper

 

Occurrence of ESBL, MRSA and VRE pathogens in contaminated banknotes in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

 

*Omar B. Ahmed and Bassam H. Mashat

 

Department of Environmental and Health Research, The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Institute for Hajj and Umrah, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

 

*Corresponding Author’s Email: abuaglah1@hotmail.com

 

Accepted 03 March, 2015

 

Abstract

 

Paper currency has an important role in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms and presents a moderate risk to public health. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains are increasingly being reported. The objective of this study was determination of microbial contaminants and resistant pathogenic strains mainly ESBL, MRSA and VRE of banknotes in circulation in holy Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. A total of 50 samples of Saudi banknotes were studied for isolation of contaminating bacteria, ESBL production, MRSA and VRE using standard laboratory procedures. Ninety two percent of the sample banknotes were found to be contaminated by bacteria or fungi. A total of 67 bacterial isolates were obtained. Three fungal species were isolated, two Candida albicans and one Aspergillus sp. The highest number of isolates were coagulase negative Staphylococci (23.9%) followed by E. coli (19.4%) while Salmonella and Proteus species were the least isolate (1.5%). ESBL producing bacteria were found to be 13.4% while MRSA and VRE were found to be 10.4% and 4.5% respectively. The circulating currency could serve as a vehicle for transmission of drug resistant pathogens or potential organisms. Disinfection of the currencies in banks and proper hand hygiene and overall hygiene are recommended.

 

Keywords: ESBL, MRSA, VRE, Banknotes, Currency, Contaminated Money.