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August 2012 Vol. 1 Issue 2

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Rombo GO
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Global Advanced Research Journal of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics

August 2012 Vol. 1(2), pp. 019-025
Copyright © 2012 Global Advanced Research Journals




Rickets in rift valley: A review of manifestation and links with flouride contents of drinking water supplies and food


George Omolo Rombo1 and Margaret Muoki2


1Senior Lecturer, Food Biochemistry, Food Processing and Food Safety, Department of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kenyatta University,P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.,

2Research Assistant Kenyatta University P.O Box 43844-00100 Nairobi, Kenya.


*Corresponding  author  E-Mail:;Tel. 0723161865


Accepted 09 August, 2012




The study is to determine the prevalence of rickets among children under five years and links with flouride contents in drinking water. Food sources and recommended adequate daily intake for vitamin D. Naivasha hospital Rift Valley Province, confounding correlations between  the disease rickets in relation to flouride contents of water supplies and food. Case study design was used by comparing data from Yemen, Ethiopia, India, Ausralia and Kenya. Data in Kenya was extracted from Katolo in Kano, a part of the Great Rift Valley, showing bowlegged children and domestic animals from volcamic areas within and outside the Great Rift Valley showing  evidence of rickets. Review of reports on incidences and distribution of rickets in East Africa, India, Ethiopia and Australia. Correlatons between rickets and fluoride contents of water supplies was reviewd in the report. The incidence of rickets is becoming worrisome in the Rift Valley, it is important to note that through empirical evidence flouride concentrates can enter public water systems from natural sources. The rise in cases of rickets observed in Rift Valley may be due to three causes ;- Decrease in the calcium content of water and increased concentration of fluoride in water due to global warming, decreased exposure to natural sunlight. They are ever dressed like Eskimos by mothers who leave for work very early in the morning while it is extremely cold in Naivasha and these children are kept indoors most of the time hence their bodies may never manufacture vitamin D from nutrients derived from food and water sources. It is recommended that urgent research is needed on links between drinking water and foods consumed in the Rift Valley basin to determine wheather their contents of flouride comply with the World Health Organisation’s recommendation of 0.5- 1.5 ppm.


Keywords : Ricket, rift valley, drinking water, food.